The inside of battery like alkaline batteries, no matter the advertised claims, are little more than an enhancement of 19th Century carbon-zinc technology. The biggest change in chemistry is an alteration to the chemical mix in the electrolyte that makes it more alkaline (what did you expect?). This change helps to increase storage density and shelf life of the cells.
The construction (as opposed to chemistry) of alkaline cells differs significantly from ordinary carbon-zinc cells, however. Alkaline cells are effectively turned inside-out. The shell of the alkaline battery is nothing more than that–a protective shell–and it does not play a part in the overall chemical reaction. The anode of the cell is a gelled mixture of powered zinc combined with the electrolyte (itself a mixture of potassium hydroxide–a strong alkaline-and water), and the combination is linked to the negative terminal of the cell by a brass spike running up the middle of the cell. The cathode, a mixture of carbon and manganese dioxide, surrounds the anode and electrolyte, separated by a layer of non-woven fabric such as polyester. The figure below illustrates the construction of a Duracell alkaline battery.